The cause of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs is uncertain but may represent an immune-mediated reaction involving the gastrointestinal tract. Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis occurs in dogs and is more severe than acute gastritis, typically causing profuse hematemesis and/or hematochezia. Classically occurring in smaller breeds that have not had access to garbage, this disorder has an acute course that rapidly produces an ill dog. In severe cases, the dog may be moribund by the time of getting to the vet.
Dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis are typically hemoconcentrated (i.e., packed caell volume higher than 55%) with normal plasma normal protein concentrations. The acute onset of typical clinical signs plus marked hemoconcentration allows a presumptive diagnosis. Thrombocytopenia and renal or prerenal azotemia may be seen in severely affected animals.
Aggressive fluid therapy is begun to treat or prevent shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to hypoperfusion, and renal failure secondary to hypovolemia. Parental antibiotics (e.g., ampicillin, chloramphenicol) are used of fear that intestinal anaerobes are proliferating, but their value is uncertain.
The prognosis is good for most dogs affected by hemorrhagic gastroenteritis – as long as they are presented to a clinician in a timely fashion. Of not treated, dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis may die of circulatory collapse and/or renal failure.
Canine hemorrhagic gastritis diagnostic plan:
Canine hemorrhagic gastritis treatment:
Nothing orally for 12 to 24 hours
Drugs to inhibit gastric acid secretion
Canine hemorrhagic gastritis dietary plan:
A dietbased on overall patient evaluation including body condition and other organ systems. A dietwith moderate to low levels of fat, fiber, and protein to minimize dietary-induced delays in gastric emptying. For dogs with gastritis caused by food allergy, a hypoallergenic diet is indicated.